James Hutton Limited works with businesses, organisations and industry groups, collaborating on projects where science and project management are required to create solutions or perhaps support the credibility of developments, provide proof of concept or contribute to feasibility studies.
Scientists at the James Hutton Institute have a wealth of research on hand that can be applied to real world situations and problems. Often, we are approached and asked to find solutions.
Current Commercial Projects
Breeding for Durable Resistance to RhynchosporiUM (DRRUM)
Project partners: KWS UK Ltd, James Hutton Institute, James Hutton Limited
Innovate UK project 102278
Leaf scald, caused by the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune is one of the most damaging diseases of UK barley. Current control strategies rely heavily on fungicides, but the most effective and sustainable way to protect crops is to develop new cultivars that incorporate and express effective built-in resistance. In order to do this we need to simultaneously introduce multiple, complementary resistance genes, into a single line. This is extremely hard to do if traditional selection methods are used. This project will translate cutting edge advances in barley genetics to deliver innovative breeding methods along with DNA markers that are needed to achieve this objective. These resources and knowledge will be used by the commercial partner (KWS UK Ltd) to produce the next generation of highly resistant barley varieties that will protect yield and quality for growers and end users of barley grain.
In-field optical detection of potato disease (Poptical)
Project partners; Manor Fresh, James Hutton Limited, Agrii, James Hutton Institute
Innovate UK project 102105
The withdrawal of numerous pesticides under Directive 91/414/EEC and subsequent amendments is central to promoting low pesticide-input farming in EU Member States. Furthermore, EU-wide standards for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) are being developed that will become mandatory from 2014 relying on adoption of alternative methods to control pests and diseases. The UK potato industry is particularly vulnerable to a reduction of pesticide use with a likely loss of production across market sectors valued at > £520M. Thus new and novel methods of disease management need to be developed and integrated into IPM strategies. In this project, we wish to explore whether using cutting edge unmanned aerial vehicle optical platforms it is possible to identify a number of diseases in potato before visual symptoms occur in the field. If successful, this will allow accurate mapping of disease in the field thus allowing targeted application of pesticide or equivalent to manage disease at an early stage. Consequently, this will yield a more efficient production process with fewer inputs resulting in significant environmental benefits and a reduction in production wastage due to disease pressure.
BLIGHTSENSE - Development of a rapid biosensor system for in-field detection of potato late blight pathogens
Project partners; Soil Essentials Limited, University of Cambridge, James Hutton Limited, James Hutton Institute, Syngenta Crop Protection UK Limited
Innovate UK project 102084
Potato late blight is one of the world's most destructive crop diseases, with £3.5Bn annual losses globally in an industry suffering stagnant yields for the last decade. This project will develop a rapid acoustic biosensor device for in-field identification of air-borne sporangia of Phytophthora Infestans (causal agent of late blight), to meet the compelling need for improved disease management & control. Soil Essentials (SE), a precision-farming SME, together with University of Cambridge (UC), the James Hutton Institute (JHI), Mylnefield Research Services (MRS) & Syngenta (SG), will develop an integrated diagnostic tool for early pathogen detection, by coupling low-cost, antibody-coated acoustic sensing consumables with a proven spore-trap. The proposed innovation, enabled only by the interdisciplinary convergence of state-of-the art acousto-electronics, smart materials, biochemistry, late blight epidemiology, advanced ICT & precision agriculture, will enable optimised disease control, reducing potato crop waste & fungicide costs, improving marketable yield & quality. As a platform technology, it can be easily adapted to detect other crop & livestock pathogens for wider agricultural impact.
Optimised Detection and Control of Potato Blight: Sensing Pathogens to Inform Smart Spray Decisions
Project partners; The James Hutton Institute, Rothamsted Research, Burkard Manufacturing Ltd, Velcourt Group plc, Spearhead International, Frontier Agriculture Ltd, James Hutton Limited, G’s Fresh Limited
Innovate UK project 102084
The maintenance of global food security, mediated by sustainable intensification of agriculture, is a recognised global issue and the effective management of plant disease is critical to productive cropping of agricultural land. Potato is the third most important food crop globally, with late blight control being a major challenge estimated to cost £3.5billion in losses per annum. In the UK, disease control alone costs £55M per annum on average to the industry. This project seeks to demonstrate a new prototype device that will sample airborne spores of P. infestans (the cause of late blight) and Alternaria species (the cause of early blight) in the field, automatically process the sample, quantify DNA by fluorescence and relay results by mobile phone text message. The aim is to improve current weather-based disease risk models and predictions for late blight, resulting in enhanced decision making ability for growers with respect to fungicide choice and application and therefore more efficient resource use.
Improving yield stability in UK blueberry production
Project partners; James Hutton Limited, Castleton Fruit Limited, Thomas Thomson Limited, AHDB, James Hutton Institute, Delta T, S & A Produce (UK) Limited, M&S Plc, Soil Essentials
Innovate UK project 102130
Yield instability negatively impacts UK soft fruit growers, preventing accurate profit prediction and maximisation, causing volatility of UK supply. The problem is now well recognised within industry, though the causes of significant season to season yield variation are unknown. This proposal aims to identify the physiological and biochemical processes underlying yield limitations, thereby identifying causes of the yield volatility phenotype. An examination of the impact of growing environment and management practices on yield will be undertaken to allow development of predictive yield maps & models that provide frameworks for yield optimisation in the short to medium term. This knowledge of availabletools to assist management will be transferred to growers and also used to develop molecular markers for yield stability allowing long-term solutions to the problem, thereby future proofing the UK soft fruit industry, particularly blueberry crops with application to other fruit crops.
Feasibility of developing a novel breeding methodology to improve berry flavour
Project partners; S & A Produce (UK) Limited, Total Worldfresh, James Hutton Limited, James Hutton Institute
Innovate UK project 132845
Flavour is a complex trait under large environmental and seasonal effects which already poses a challenge to breeders, and will be more problematic with extreme weather events and climate change.
Conventional breeding and selection techniques are slow and hindered by seasonal and environmental variation with QTL mapping also varying with the environment. Recent omics tools have been developed (genome scaffolds, gene expression & metabolomics data, correlation networks) that will allow us to investigate and validate links between berry flavour and its controlling factors (metabolites, genes, environment) to develop a useful model. This feasibility study aims to improve raspberry flavour by utilising omics data alongside historic genotype, phenotype, met & QTL data with novel flavour profiling research to develop new breeding models.
Enhancing plant establishment in commercial blueberries using symbiotic fungi
Project partners; James Hutton Limited, James Hutton Institute, Thomas Thomson
Innovate UK project 132851
There is a need to develop a greater understanding of factors affecting the speed and proficiency of blueberry plant establishment and thereafter maintenance of yield.
Bushes do not become fully productive until they are between five and seven years old, requiring a significant financial layout from growers before any expected return to profit. A significant knowledge gap exists regarding the inter-relationship between mycorrhizal fungi and plant establishment of naturally occurring and commercially grown Vaccinium species.
This project aims to identify species - specific fungal communities to assess their ability to colonise a range of highbush blueberry cultivars and their affect on establishment and plant productivity. This project is the first step in developing a commercial product based on symbiotic fungal isolates for the propagation industry and growers, which would enhance establishment and growth of blueberry plants.
Plant sensing to determine environmental impacts on developmental processes leading to crop yield (CherryBerry)
Project partners: Berry Gardens Growers Limited, The James Hutton Institute, James Hutton Limited, Mothive Limited, Thomas Thomson (Blairgowrie) Limited, Castleton Fruit Ltd.
Innovate UK project 104624
Throughout their life cycle, plants are subjected to many adverse environmental conditions including low light levels and periods of drought or extreme temperatures which can dramatically affect plant survival and limit productivity. In order to cope with such stresses, plants adjust metabolically and physiologically. Unanticipated variation in crop development is already in evidence in a range of crop varieties resulting in yield instability with significant negative impacts on the rural economy, environment and wellbeing. Cherry and blueberry are prime examples where, depending on season, a condition known as Cherry June Drop can occur where unripe fruit fall from the tree to excessive levels, drastically reducing yield. Similarly in blueberry widely varying yield is achieved depending on season with factors such as bud initiation being important. Currently no methods exist to understand when and how a plant's development has been disrupted or to characterise the key environmental signals responsible. The lack of knowledge in these two areas severely limits the capacity for active crop management to optimise yield or to breed for future environmental resilience. This work will use a field based plant and environmental monitoring approach to develop environmental models of blueberry bud initiation and cherry June Drop. We will attempt to identify signals that arise from the plants short-term responses to environmental conditions ('sensing'), to identify the point(s) at which the plant's development leads to the unwanted phenotype (excessive June Drop or excessive vegetative bud development). Blueberry and Cherry are key crops with great potential for UK production but which currently supply only 7% and 5% respectively of the market with UK fruit. Current expansion particularly in cherry is presently impeded by this unpredictable developmental phenotype, 'June Drop', which can lead to fruit losses of 80%. In blueberry, yield varies as much as 50% across seasons. Project outputs will allow, for the first time, the ability to carry out in-field environmental monitoring and crop phenotyping to understand environmental factors controlling crop production and develop bespoke crop management systems that will mitigate the effect of environmental variation and ensure future crop yield stabilisation and for cherry to encourage new plantations to reduce imports. The outputs would also have application to a wide range of other crops where other phenotypic disorders can be detected and methods developed for mitigation and also for plant breeding where varieties can be selected based on imaging signals of plant responses to environmental conditions.
Past Commercial Projects
Developing genetic resources in blueberries
Project partners; James Hutton Limited, James Hutton Institute, Totalworldfresh, S & A Produce (UK) Limited, AHDB
Innovate UK project 131889
There has been increased demand for blueberries in recent years fuelled in part because of their many recognised health benefits. Development of new blueberry cultivars with high fruit and nutritional quality combined with early and late ripening and appropriate climatic adaptation is needed. With the availability of more genomic resources, marker-assisted breeding could be used in cultivar development to more efficiently combine traits for fruit and nutritional quality specific to UK climatic adaptation. This project would therefore develop pre-breeding populations and a high resolution GbS linkage map to allow the UK to develop adapted blueberry cultivars efficiently, cost effectively and in a shorter time frame than would be feasible by traditional breeding means. This would allow the UK to produce more home grown fruit for consumption to increase from the 5% UK fruit currently available.
Using genomics technologies to determine the mechanism of resistance to phytophthora root rot in raspberry for future breeding applications to raspberry and other crops
Project partners; James Hutton Limited, James Hutton Institute, Total World Fresh, Thomas Thomson Limited, M&S Plc, S&A Produce (UK) Limited, AHDB, Berry Gardens Limited
Innovate UK project 131890
In the Northern Hemisphere with damper conditions, Phytophthora root rot is causing a rapid decline in raspberry plantations grown in soil and also greatly decreasing the life span of production of raspberries grown in substrate with negative environmental consequenses.
Plant based resistance is the only way forward and limited material exists that consistently withstands infection with little/no symptom production. The development of gene based techniques offers an opportunity to identify genes that have a significant role in this plant-pathogen interaction to determine the mechanisms of resistance and develop novel strategies of protection including breeding. How both resistant and susceptible varieties respond at the level of gene expression and how the pathogen responds to the differing phenotypes will identify gene markers and allow strategies for control to be developed.
Imaging sensor solutions in the soft fruit industry for high throughput phenotyping and monitoring of abiotic and biotic stresses for premium variety production and maximised yields
Project partners: James Hutton Limited, James Hutton Institute, AHDB, Total Worldfresh, Soil Essentials, Thomas Thomson Ltd
Innovate UK Project 101819
New crop varieties that can tolerate abiotic/biotic stresses are essential for maintaining crop productivity in current and future growing environments. Breeding stress-tolerant crop varieties, however, is limited by the precision and throughput of plant phenotyping. This project will develop and apply a novel tractor-mounted platform for precise and high throughput field phenotyping of plant stress responses of soft fruit crops using IRT and hyperspectral imaging. It is proposed also to assess the value of canopy imaging as an indirect indicator of abiotic and biotic root stresses. Soft fruit crops such as raspberry can experience multiple stresses in field conditions, including poor soil conditions, variable water availability, and attack by root rot pathogens and root-feeding vine weevil larvae. Phenotyping data will be linked to genetic markers to facilitate breeding of productive, stress-resistant soft fruit varieties. This novel high-throughput phenotyping platform will accelerate the development and release of productive high quality soft fruit varieties that perform well in sustainable reduced input cropping and is expected to be valuable for routine monitoring of crops and stress diagnosis.
Strategies to reduce waste due to greening in potato tubers
Project partners; Branston Limited, Amcor Flexibles UK Limited, James Hutton Limited, Tesco Plc, James Hutton Institute, University of Southampton, Waitrose Limited
Innovate UK Project 132342
In the UK, tuber greening is directly linked to 116,000 tonnes of household potato waste each year with an associated estimated loss of £60m p.a. to UK retailers. In field losses due to tuber greening also cost the industry £37m p.a. Greening is a significantly negative factor in consumer purchases where a 1% increase in sales is worth £3m p.a. to producers. This project brings together partners that span the food chain from production, through packaging, to major supermarkets who will work with academic researchers to develop solutions to reduce tuber greening. Photobiological experiments will identify the conditions and target genes for light-induced tuber greening informing the design of prototype packaging film to reduce greening during storage and in store. Recently developed potato genetic approaches will be used to identify markers for genes associated with reduced greening providing the foundation of a longer term strategy to produce new non-greening potato varieties.
TuberZone – Development of an innovative spatial crop model and decision support system for improved potato agronomy
Project partners; Soil Essentials Ltd, Newcastle University, James Hutton Limited, Grimme UK Limited, McCain Foods (GB) Limited
Innovate UK project 102125
The potato industry has witnessed a 10-year long yield stagnation; coupled with increasingly stringent demands on potato quality, there is a compelling need for farmers to increase marketable yield. This project aims to develop an innovative spatial crop model & integrated decision support system for improved variable rate seed planting, fertiliser use & irrigation scheduling to increase productivity of the potato value chain. Converging the multi-disciplinary expertise of Soil Essentials (SE), Newcastle University (NU), Mylnefield Research Services (MRS), Grimme (GR), & McCain (MC), we will build upon the MAPP point model (Management Advisory Package for Potatoes) by taking a holistic approach & considering the spatial variability of tuber size distribution to inform a new & improved adaptive spatial meta-model. The resulting spatial decision support system is cross-sectorial & has the potential to transform in-field decision-making, not just for potato farming but also for other root & arable crops.
Project partners; Snook, The James Hutton Institute
Innovate UK project 133145
Access to a healthy nutritious meal is not available to all members of society.
Since 2009 across the UK there has been a staggering increase of > 4500% in the use of food banks (Trussell Trust, 2017). In England, 26% of the population were defined as inactive with obesity prevalence at 27% (NHS England, 2017) mostly driven by disadvantaged sectors of society. Furthermore, c. 45% of adults in England ate fewer than 3 portions of fruit and vegetables daily. In areas of Scotland this figure is worse.
Using Dundee as a model, this is a city scale project of growing soft fruit (raspberry & blueberry) in urban areas for the provision of healthy nutritious food that leads to physical activity; additionally with the potential to increase green space known to have a positive impact on mental health.
Optimising oat yield and quality to deliver sustainable production and economic impact (Opti-Oat)
Project partners; PepsiCo International Limited, URSULA Agriculture Limited, James Hutton Limited, Aberystwyth University, NIAB, James Hutton Institute
Innovate UK project 102128
This project will provide UK oat producers with world leading agronomic ‘tools’ to maximise grower returns and capitalise on the increasing demand for food grade oats. The objectives are 1) Develop and validate algorithms for translating visual / spectral sensor data from Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into quantifiable crop parameters to enable growers to optimise management for yield and quality across fields; 2) develop an Oat Crop Model and associated decision support tools; 3) develop an Oat Growth Guide which will provide a reference to assess crops status against key development bench-marks. Focused dissemination of these innovative tools will increase average yields by at least 1t/ha (equivalent to a ~£15M uplift p.a. in output from the existing oat land base), contribute to sustainable intensification, reduce supply risk for millers, reduce imports, catalyse product innovation & consumer access to healthy grains and stimulate milled product export.
Assessment of SOIL quality using a BIOindicator (SoilBio)
Project partners; SoilEssentials, the James Hutton Institute, James Hutton Limited, SRUC, Barfoots
Innovate UK project 102272
Providing sufficient food to feed an increasing global population is challenging given limited resources. Soil is a key component of food production providing nutrition and organic matter. However, modern methods of crop production have resulted in degraded soil leading to reduced yields. This contributes to the so-called yield gap, the difference between yield in optimal conditions to that actually achieved. This project focusses on developing a test for soil quality that uses measures of soil biology, chemistry and physics. We profile soil nematode community DNA, similar to genetic fingerprinting, to inform the status of soil quality. Whereas soil chemical and physical measures are snapshot measures in time e.g. hours, nematode data is a reflection of weeks/months. The consortium partners will develop a tool for farmers to be used in a precision agriculture framework to identify fields in need of soil quality improvement.